NANJING  UNIVERSITY

Professor Ke Ping

Department of English, School of Foreign Studies, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Dadao, Nanjing, 210023, CHINA 22 Hankou Lu, Nanjing, 210093, CHINA

EMAIL: keping00ATyahoo.com

Course Supporting Website: http://dhost.info/pingke/TOC/TS.html;  http://www.eccentrix.com/members/keping/TOC/TS.html

 

 

 

Introduction to Translation Studies (ITS)

 

Course Outline

 

THE NAME AND NATURE OF TRANSLATION

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

 

TYPES OF TRANSLATION

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

 

THE SCOPE AND OBJECTS OF TRANSLATION STUDIES

 

The Internal Studies

1     Theoretical Branch (Translation Theory)

                     1.1  The Translation Process

2     Applied Branch

                     2.1  Text Analysis and Translation

                     2.2  Genre Translation

                     2.3  Translation Quality Assessment

                     2.4  Translator Training

The External Studies

       1     Translation History

       2     Translation Ethics

       3     Terminology and Glossaries

       4     Translation and Technology

The Relationship Between the Internal & External Studies

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

 

TRANSLATION THEORY: MAJOR SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT ON TRANSLATION

 

Qualities of a Good Theory

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Philological School

1     In China

2     In the West

3     Concerns and Shortcomings of this School

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Hermeneutic School

1     Hermeneutics

2     Inspirations Translation Studies Derived from Hermeneutics

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Linguistic School

1     Nida and Chomsky

2     Merits and Faults

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Communicative School

1     Theoretical Sources: Information Theory and Sociolinguistics

                     (1)   Information theory

                     (2)   Sociolinguistics

2     Minimal and Maximal Requirements for Translational Adequacy

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Sociosemiotic School

1     Meaning and Semiotics

2     Three Types of (Sociosemiotic) Meaning

                     2.1  Referential Meaning (RM)

                     2.2  Pragmatic Meaning (PM)

                     2.3  Intralingual Meaning (IM)

3     Insights the Sociosemiotic Analysis of Meaning Lends to Translation

                     3.1  Meaning Is Multiple

3.2  Style Is Meaning

3.3  Different Meanings May Carry Different Weight in Different Contexts

3.4  Translation Standard: Optimal Equivalence

Summary

4     Distinctive Advantages in Comparison with Other Approaches

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Skopos Theory

1     Vermeers Skopos Theory

2     The General Translation Theory of Reiss and Vermeer

3     The Role of the Source Text in Translation

4     Criticisms of Skopos Theory

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Manipulation School

1     Theoretical Roots: Russian Formalism

2     A New Stance that Attempted to Reconcile Literary and Linguistic Schools

3     Objects of Study & Theoretical Goal

4     Two Distinctive Groups

                     4.1  The Dutch/Flemish Group: Descriptive Studies

                     4.2  The Anglo-American Group: Cultural Studies

5     The Norm Theory

5.1  The Notion of Norms

5.2  Historical and Theoretical Background

5.3  The Classification of Norms

                     5.3.1  Toury’s “Translation Norms”

                     5.3.2  Chesterman’s “Translation Norms”

5.4  Theoretical and Practical Impacts of the Norm Theory

6     Merits and Problems of the School

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Post-structuralist School

1     Social Background: an Age of Turmoil

2     Structuralism and Post-structuralism

3     Questions Posed from a Reversed Direction of Thought

4     Différance: the Key Notion Underlying this Schools Approach

5     Translation and Philosophy

6     The Original Does Not Have Any Determinable Meaning

7     A Short Criticism

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

The Postcolonial School

1     Postcolonialism

2     Postcolonial Translation Theory

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

 

COMMERCIAL TRANSLATION

Definition and Development

Text-types and Source Language Textual Quality

Translation Rates

Electronic Aids to Commercial Translation and Presentation

Commercial Translators and Professionalism

The Translation of Trade Marks and Advertisement Slogans

1     The Translation of Trade Marks

2     The Translation of Advertisement Slogans

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

 

MEDIA TRANSLATION (i) Journalistic Translation

 

Desirable Qualities of a News Translator

Nature of Journalistic Translation: Translating-editing

Central Consideration: Situation of Use

Culture-specific and Politically Sensitive Items

Language Used

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

 

MEDIA TRANSLATION (ii) Screen Translation

 

Dubbing

1     Disadvantages and Advantages

2     Cultural Constraints on Dubbing

Subtitling

1     Subtitling Defined

2     Different Types of Subtitling

3     The Media-defined Constraints on Subtitling

Samples (2)

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

 

THE TRANSLATION OF METAPHORS

Kinds of Metaphor

1     Dead Metaphors

2     Cliché Metaphors

3     Stock or Standard Metaphors

4     Adapted Metaphors

5     Recent Metaphors

6     Original Metaphors

The Purpose of Metaphor

Principles of Metaphor Translation

Questions for Discussion & Research

 

 

THE PROBLEM OF CULTURE: Cultural Presuppositions and Misreading

Culture Defined

Cultural Presuppositions Related to the Techno-economic System

Cultural Presuppositions Related to the Social System

Cultural Presuppositions Related to the Ideational System

Cultural Presuppositions Related to the Linguistic System

Two Reasons for Being Fully Aware of Cultural Presuppositions

References

Questions for Discussion & Research