武術學 Chinese Martial Arts

八卦掌 Baguazhang

簡介 Introduction

Baguazhang's origins are shrouded in mystery, but the first to teach it was Dong Haichuan (董海川) during the 19th century in Beijing, while he was employed at the residence (肅王府) of Prince Su (肅親王). The main training method of his art was walking in circles (走圈), and his main technique was the piercing palm (穿掌), but baguazhang eventually absorbed the good points of other famous schools of martial arts in Beijing - such as taijiquan (太極拳) and xingyiquan (形意拳). He also devised several new weapons, such as the bizarre chicken claw razors (子母陰陽雞爪鴛鴦鋭) and the seven star rod (七星竿), a stout bamboo staff with mercury within.

Eventually, Dong's students developed the art in their own way, resulting in different lineages of baguazhang, such as those from Yin Fu (尹福), Cheng Tinghua (程廷華), Fan Zhiyong (樊志勇), and Liang Zhenpu (梁振蒲). Today, the most widespread is Cheng style, partially because is often practiced by xingyiquan school exponents as well.

内容 Contents
Baguazhang's contents are extensive and comprehensive, yet the core is the "old eight palms" said to be passed down by Dong. (Below is from the Liang Zhenpu school.)
  • 套路 (Routines): 老八掌 (Old Eight Palms), 定式八掌 (Static Posture Eight Palms), 六十四手 (64 Hands), 八肘 (8 Elbows), 六把總拿 (6 General Seizes), 單環掌 (Single Ring Palms), 連環掌 (Linked Ring Palms), 龍形掌 (Dragon Form Palms)...
  • 兵器 (Weapons): 轉刀 (Turning Saber), 六十四刀 (64 Saber), 轉劍 (Turning Sword), 龍形劍 (Dragon Form Sword), 轉槍 (Turning Spear), 戰身槍 (Fighting Body Spear), 三趟七星竿 (3 Lines of Seven Star Rod), 風火輪 (Wind Fire Wheels), 子母陰陽雞爪鴛鴦鋭 (Chicken Claw Razors)...

行意拳 Xingyiquan

簡介 Introduction

Xingyiquan is the oldest of the three internal arts, yet has changed a great deal since its ancient origins as Dai family xinyiquan (戴氏心意拳) and prior. Its oldest incarnation perhaps was the Shaolin xinyiba (心意把), which as practiced by Shaolin exponents today is often only a single technique. The Dai family later melded 5 phase theory (五行學說) with combat skills, so that each technique corresponded to a particular organ system, but was also used for fighting. Li Luoneng (李絡能) learned from the Dai family, but continued to evolve his art, later renaming it to "xingyiquan."

Li's students, including Che Yizhai (車毅齋), Song Shirong (宋世榮), Guo Yunshen (郭雲深), and Liu Qilan (劉奇蘭), later further developed xingyiquan into different schools, yet xingyiquan is always easily recognizable via its distinctive five fists and twelve animals.

  • 十二形 The 12 Animals
  • 内容 Contents
    Xingyiquan's contents are more inclusive than extensive, but include a variety of skills and routines. (Below is from the Guo Yunshen school.)
    • 套路 (Routines): 五形拳 (Five Phase Fists), 五行連環拳 (Five Phase Linked Fists), 五行相剋拳 (Five Phase Mutual Destruction Fists), 十二形拳 (12 Animals Fists), 雞形四把 (Chicken Form 4 Techniques), 金剛八勢 (Vajra Eight Postures), 雜勢捶 (Mixed Postures Fist), 八字功連拳 (Eight Character Skills Linked Fists)...
    • 兵器 (Weapons): 五行連環刀 (Five Phases Linked Saber), 五行連環劍 (Five Phases Linked Sword), 十二形劍 (12 Animals Sword), 六合大槍 (Six Combinations Long Spear), 九洲棍 (Nine Provinces Staff), 鹿角刀 (Deer Horn Knives)...